Entre el Poder y la Obediencia: El Gobierno en la España de Franco

De entre las instituciones políticas levantas por la dictadura de Franco, solo una llegó a alcanzar auténtica sustantividad: el Gobierno. Ante la inexistencia de partidos políticos y de un Parlamento democrático, el Consejo de Ministros del franquismo concentró simbólica y efectivamente todos los poderes. Sin embargo, la lógica autoritaria del sistema impidió que se desarrollara autónomamente como órgano colegiado, al encontrarse bajo la dirección del Jefe del Estado, autoridad suprema del régimen. Partiendo de un enfoque multidisciplinar que combina la exégesis de los textos legales con la revisión de las aportaciones doctrinales, este artículo analiza la paradójica situación del Gabinete, atendiendo a su configuración jurídica, a la evolución de su estructura y funciones, y al perfil de sus integrantes.

Among the political institutions established by Franco’s dictatorship, only one could reach substantive autonomy: the Government. Considering the inexistence of political parties and a democratic Parliament, the francoist Council of Ministers gathered all powers both symbolically and effectively. Nevertheless, the authoritarian logic of the system prevented it from autonomously developing as a collegiate organ, situated under the direction of the Head of State, supreme authority of the regime. Starting from a multidisciplinary approach that combines the exegesis of the legal texts with the revision of the doctrinal contributions, this article analyses the paradoxical situation of the Cabinet, attending to its legal shape, the evolution of its structure and functions, and the profile of its members.

Review of Amelang.pdf

This article considers the pinturas of New Spain from the Relaciones Geográficas de Indias as an ambitious and imperialistic metropolitan project for a Ptolemaic chorography of the Indies that was, in the end, redefined in the colony by the tlacuiloque and the local communities as a sort of ‘invention of a New Spain’. For the Council of Indies, the project of the Relaciones and their pinturas meant the final stage of a cosmographical appropriation of the American territories. For New Spain, however, the resulting hybrid cartographic representations meant a sort of foundational act of a “New Spain”. The local communities and the authors of the pinturas took the opportunity given to them by their new lords to reinvent their own version of the territory appropriating the initial imperial design to establish their own new identities.

In Memoriam

A Failure of Intelligence: Gómez Suárez de Figueroa and the Fieschi Conspiracy, 1547

This essay analyzes the dynamics and limitations of Spanish diplomacy and espionage during the Fieschi conspiracy in Genoa in 1547, by focusing on the role played by the Spanish resident ambassador, Gómez Suárez de Figueroa (d. 1569). Figueroa received warnings from the Spanish intelligence network about a potential coup attempt well ahead of the event, but he discounted them; the actual event caught him by surprise, and it was only luck that saved him and Charles V from a diplomatic and strategic disaster. Despite this monumental blunder, however, Charles maintained Figueroa at his post, and valued his advice about how to handle Genoese politics. Charles secretly proposed seizing power in Genoa, but Figueroa argued against it. The fact that Charles accepted Figueroa’s advice says much about his personal style of rule, and his reliance on his officials in Italy who had knowledge of local conditions.

Why Did Spain Fail To Develop Nationalist Opera?

Spain, unlike most other continental European nations, failed to develop a nationalist school of operatic composition during the nineteenth century. This failure had two causes. The first was a lack of institutional support, as Spain’s leading opera house (the Teatro Real in Madrid) was dedicated to the performance of Italian opera. This pushed opera into the commercial theatre, betraying the lack of state support for nationalist musical culture. The second reason for the failure can be found in the adoption by Spanish composers of the musical philosophy of Richard Wagner. Wagnerism insisted that music was a universal ideal. The lack of institutional support and tensions inherent in Wagnerism played out most clearly in the performance history of Tomás Bretón’s Los amantes de Teruel; the failure of this opera to find an audience would be the last significant attempt to create nationalist opera in Spain. The failure of nationalist opera in Spain is yet a further example of the Spanish state to develop nationalist traditions in the late nineteenth century.

Creating Conversos: Genealogy and Identity as Historiographical Problems (after a recent book by Ángel Alcalá)

Water as a Collective Responsibility: The Tribunal de las Aguas and the Valencian Community

In this article, we argue that the Tribunal de las Aguas, historically part of a larger complex of irrigation communities, provides a foundation for an alternative model of water management, and has survived for over a thousand years precisely because it answers the community’s needs, and contributes to Valencian regional identity. As research has recently shown in African cases, providing education, infrastructure, and management opportunities to local communities helps to encourage both sustainability and direct involvement in water distribution, contrary to the impersonal distribution characteristic of privatized systems. The Tribunal de las Aguas has transcended tremendous political, social, and economic change in Spain in general, and Valencia in particular, and remains an important facet of local identity. As water issues become more and more pressing in the face of climate change, pollution, and seemingly insatiable demand, we will need to find more creative and innovative ways to address the often conflicting demands on this most valuable resource. Furthermore, the gendered aspects of water rights and distribution continue to play such a significant role in our global water cultures, and our article will contribute to a larger discussion of women’s roles in irrigation and water use in different historical contexts.

O desenvolvimento do sector da consultoria e a difusão da organização científica do trabalho em Portugal: uma relação próxima?

Vários factores se conjugam na tentativa de explicação do desenvolvimento e difusão de princípios e métodos de organização científica do trabalho nas várias realidades nacionais. Cruzando temáticas paralelas que se cruzam e articulam, propomos um olhar sobre o impacto do desenvolvimento do sector da consultoria nos Estados Unidos da América e na Europa Ocidental como um outro factor a ter em conta na compreensão da evolução da organização científica do trabalho no pós Segunda Guerra português.

A tese essencial que propomos baseia-se no facto da difusão da organização científica do trabalho em alguns países europeus, entre os quais Portugal, estar relacionada com o desenvolvimento do sector da consultoria em organização que, no seu processo de crescimento, procurava novos mercados e clientes. De facto, sendo este um negócio que ganhou maior visibilidade com o desenvolvimento da organização científica do trabalho, acaba por ser um dos elementos responsáveis pela sua expansão internacional, numa relação de cumplicidade que também em Portugal se torna visível.

Metodologicamente, começaremos por identificar as origens das firmas de consultoria em organização, a sua transferência dos Estado Unidos da América para a Europa e a sua expansão no velho continente, finalizando com uma análise mais aprofundada sobre o caso português, notando o papel que estas firmas tiveram no processo de difusão e desenvolvimento da organização científica do trabalho no País.

El pensamiento europeo sobre la revisión y moderación en los estatutos de limpieza de sangre a través de la razón de estado cristiana en tiempos de Felipe IV

En el presente artículo analizamos la evolución de los procesos de conversión y asimilación del grupo judeoconverso a la sociedad cristiana del Antiguo régimen. De la severa aplicación de los estatutos de limpieza de sangre durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVI, se pasa a una moderación y revisión de los mismos en tiempos de de Felipe IV para una asimilación pacífica del grupo de neófitos. Uno de los principales motivos de tal moderación fue la brecha social, visualizada en enfrentamientos entre cristianos viejos y nuevos, causada por la aplicación rígida de los estatutos. De tal forma, tratadistas, especialmente franciscanos y jesuitas envuelven la revisión de los estatutos de limpieza dentro de un marco jurídico-religioso que permita una asimilación pacífica en la sociedad católica del grupo de neófitos. Así, la ley divina y la ley natural o “ius naturalis” serán aunadas mediante la aplicación de la “razón de estado cristiana” muy presentes en el pensamiento europeo del momento. De este modo, nuestra hipótesis de partida se centra en ver si verdaderamente la razón de estado cristiana, argumentada por tratadistas de la época, tuvo como consecuencia una moderación en la aplicación de los estatutos de limpieza de sangre. Para responder a dicha pregunta analizamos un manuscrito inédito de época de Felipe IV, hecho por parte de un Inquisidor, en donde se pregunta la importancia de moderar los estatutos de limpieza de sangre. Al final, tales propuestas reformistas tuvieron escaso éxito debido a la presión ejercida por el grupo de cristianos viejos, reticentes a la moderación de los estatutos.

Las Consecuencias del Comercio Global en una Monarquía Compuesta: El Caso de la Corona de Aragón

Las consecuencias del comercio global, mucho más activo a partir del siglo XVII, afectó de diferente forma a las potencias europeas que estaban inmersas en el mismo. En el caso de la Monarquía Hispánica la nueva situación mercantil se mezcló con la propia dinámica política y económica derivada de las distintas repercusiones que el mismo tenía en los diferentes reinos que la componían así como los tratados de paz con otros reinos. En este artículo penetraremos en los problemas que ello causó, el cambio de coyuntura en el Mediterráneo y las respuestas dadas por la Corte hispana.